Knee arthritis is an inflammatory disease including the synovial membrane, tendons and bones. A distinctive feature of the pathology is a systemic nature, a tendency to progression, the spread of the inflammatory process to other joints, progressive limb deformity.

            In medicine, there are several forms of the disease:
            ● bacterial and infectious;
            ● rheumatoid;
            ● gouty;
            ● idiopathic;
            ● other varieties.

In the absence of complex treatment, the mobility of the knee joint is limited with the flow of time, and then comes full stiffness, when a person cannot bend or unbend a limb. 

Unlike arthrosis, which leads to destructive changes only in the bone and cartilage tissue, arthritis has a devastating effect on the entire body, gradually affecting the heart, kidneys, spine, organs of the genitourinary system.

Stages of arthritis
            1. The first stage of arthritis is expressed by mild and moderate symptoms. A person feels a slight pain when bending and unbending the knee, swelling appears under the protruding part of the joint. The pain increases with active movement. 
            2. The second degree is characterized by the formation of an inflammatory center, the hardening of cartilage, the appearance of puffiness. The skin on the joint becomes inflamed, turns red. 
            3. The third stage can be easily determined by visual inspection. The joint enlarges, deformes. Bone growths appear on the surface. The patient can not bend or straighten the leg, experiencing severe pain when walking. Movement is limited, additional supports (walkers, crutches) are required. 
            4. The fourth stage, characterized by intra-articular fusion, is rare. As a rule, the patient takes treatment at 2 or 3 stage, since the disease delivers the strongest physical discomfort.         
            Replacing the knee joint (partially or completely) is one of the options for preventing disability.    

Knee surgery in Germany
            Diagnostics, therapists, best knee replacement surgeons in Germany provide services to foreign citizens according to the chosen medical program.
            Knee prosthesis is prescribed not only for severe arthritis, but also for other articular diseases (for example in case of ankylosing spondylitis or arthrosis), as well as after serious injuries that caused joint deformation and limited mobility as result.
            Diagnosis in German hospitals will establish the accurate picture and stage of the disease. The list of diagnostic procedures includes:
            ● blood test (general, biochemistry);
            ● radiography;
            ● PET, CT, MRT;
            ● ultrasound check.
            If there is a need for additional examination, doctors prescribe puncture and biopsy of the synovial fluid. Diagnosis in Germany is considered the best in the world.
            In addition to total surgery (replacement of the knee joint with an implant), less invasive methods are used, if the situation allows. Such as:
            ● arthrolysis (removal of adhesive fibrous fragments);
            ● cartilage transplantation;
            ● synovectomy (removal of the synovial membrane);
            ● washing the articular cavity to remove salt crystals and small bone processes;
            ● osteotomy (removal of a fragment of bone tissue).
            The most effective way to solve the problem once and forever in the late stages of arthritis (and arthrosis) is knee joint arthroplasty — in other words, “knee replacement” with an artificial joint.
Partial and complete knee replacement
            Depending on the set of indications, a certain method of implant fixation is selected (with or without cementing). Unicondial implants are used for partial replacement of the joint: fixed on top of the medial condyle of the femur, in the lower part — on the inner condyle of the tibia. Bicondilar models are attached to the lateral and medial condyles of these bones.
When it comes to models of prostheses, they can be a single mechanism with hinged joints or separate parts of the articular complex that are not mechanically interconnected. The quality of the operation depends on how reasonably the surgical technique and model of the prosthesis are selected, as well as on the qualifications of the specialist. Endoprosthesis replacement in Germany after wear is performed according to a detailed scheme, so complications are extremely rare.     
            In the German hospitals two techniques are used:
            1. TKR (removal of the damaged joint with the simultaneous implant). 
            2. UKA (removal and replacement of part of the joint).

            The second operation is more benign, because the patient after surgery recovers faster. Another advantage of partial surgery is the minimal risk of infection, easier adaptation to the prosthesis, good physical performance. Revision surgery is much easier than with the total replacement of the joint. The time of the functional activity of the artificial knee is 15–20 years. German surgeons actively interact with doctors of related specialties, which significantly reduces the risk of postoperative complications. On average, hospital rehabilitation in Germany after partial replacement lasts 5 days, after full surgery — 10 days.

Choosing a hospital and specialist in Germany
The joint replacement operation with a prosthesis is performed by leading specialists of the country. The vast experience gained by surgeons, the use of the latest equipment and models of implants are the main guarantee of successful treatment. Specialists of the booking health service will help you  to choose the best medical facility in Germany based on a set of personal requirements, to prepare documents, to find an interpreter, to arrange a meeting at the airport and paperwork at the hospital, as well as provide many other services that the patient can need.

The average cost of a partial joint replacement is 7,000 euros, complete orthopedic surgery is 15,000 euros.